Windbg Minidump Tutorial – Setting Up & Reading Minidump Files


This is a tutorial on how to set up and read your minidump files when you receive a BSOD (blue screen of death) in the attempts to gain further insight as to the cause of the problem. First thing is first. Download the latest debugging tools from the Microsoft site.

Then go to Start/Start Search. Type i

the command cmd.

Then change directories to:

C:Program FilesDebugging Tools for Windows (x86)

by using the command:

cd c:program filesdebugging tools for windows (x86)

It’s case insensitive when using the cd command.

Then type in:

windbg.exe z c:windowsminidumpmini06190901.dmp c “!analyze v”

Your minidump file is located at C:WindowsMinidumpMini06200901.dmp. It’ll be in the form “MiniMMDDYY01.dmp”.


If somewhere in the output of the Bugcheck Analysis you see an error like:

Kernel symbols are WRONG. Please fix symbols to do analysis.

Then it’s most likely that you are using previous and incompatible symbols or corrupt files or you don’t have the proper symbols at the specified location when the Windbg program was trying to analyze the minidump file. So what I did was open up the Windbg program located at C:Program FilesDebugging Tools for Windows (x86) (in Vista and I believe it’s the same location for XP).


This is an important step so ensure that your symbol path file is set correctly lest you get the kernel symbols are WRONG error or other types of errors. Now set the Symbol File Path (File/Symbol File Path) to:

SRVe:symbols[path to microsoft symbols path]

However, for some reason I found that in order to set the Symbol File Path in the “File/Symbol File Path” field you cannot change it directly with the field of “File/Symbol File Path”. So what I found that you need to change it through the Windbg command window by going to:


In the bottom of the command window beside the “kd>” prompt type this in:

.sympath SRVe:symbols[path to microsoft symbols path].

The part between the two asterisks () is where the symbols from Microsoft’s servers will be downloaded to. It’s fairly large (approximately 22MB) so make sure that you have sufficient disk space.


Alternatively, you can set it in your environment variable either in your system or user environment variable. To do this, click the WINDOWS KEY+e. The WINDOWS KEY is the key to the right of the LEFT CTRL key of the keyboard. This will open up Windows Explorer.

Then click on the “Advanced system settings” at the top left of the window. This step applies to Vista only. For XP users, simply click on the Advanced tab.

Then click on the button “Environment variable” at the bottom of the window.

Then click on the “New” button under System Variables. Again you can create the environment as a user environment variable instead.

In the “Variable Name” type:


In the “Variable Value” type:

symsrvsymsrv.dlle:symbols[path to microsoft symbols path]

If you set the symbol file path as a system environment variable I believe you may have to reboot your computer in order for it to take effect.


So the following is the output for my crash:

Microsoft (R) Windows Debugger Version 6.11.0001.404 X86

Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Loading Dump File [c:windowsminidumpmini06260901.dmp]

Mini Kernel Dump File: Only registers and stack trace are available

Symbol search path is: SRVe:symbols[path to microsoft symbols]

Executable search path is:

Windows Server 2008/Windows Vista Kernel Version 6001 (Service Pack 1) MP (2 procs) Free x86 compatible

Product: WinNt, suite: TerminalServer SingleUserTS Personal

Built by: 6001.18226.x86fre.vistasp1_gdr.0903021506

Machine Name:

Kernel base = 0x8201d000 PsLoadedModuleList = 0x82134c70

Debug session time: Fri Jun 26 16:25:11.288 2009 (GMT7)

System Uptime: 0 days 21:39:36.148

Loading Kernel Symbols




Loading User Symbols

Loading unloaded module list


Bugcheck Analysis

Use !analyze v to get detailed debugging information.

BugCheck A, {8cb5bcc0, 1b, 1, 820d0c1f}

Unable to load image SystemRootsystem32DRIVERSSymIMv.sys, Win32 error 0n2

WARNING: Unable to verify timestamp for SymIMv.sys

ERROR: Module load completed but symbols could not be loaded for SymIMv.sys

Unable to load image SystemRootsystem32DRIVERSNETw3v32.sys, Win32 error 0n2

WARNING: Unable to verify timestamp for NETw3v32.sys

ERROR: Module load completed but symbols could not be loaded for NETw3v32.sys

Processing initial command ‘!analyze v’

Probably caused by : tdx.sys ( tdx!TdxMessageTlRequestComplete+94 )

Followup: MachineOwner

0: kd> !analyze v

Bugcheck Analysis


An attempt was made to access a pageable (or completely invalid) address at an

interrupt request level (IRQL) that is too high. This is usually

caused by drivers using improper addresses.

If a kernel debugger is available get the stack backtrace.


Arg1: 8cb5bcc0, memory referenced

Arg2: 0000001b, IRQL

Arg3: 00000001, bitfield :

bit 0 : value 0 = read operation, 1 = write operation

bit 3 : value 0 = not an execute operation, 1 = execute operation (only on chips which support this level of status)

Arg4: 820d0c1f, address which referenced memory

Debugging Details:

WRITE_ADDRESS: GetPointerFromAddress: unable to read from 82154868

Unable to read MiSystemVaType memory at 82134420





820d0c1f 890a mov dword ptr [edx],ecx





TRAP_FRAME: 4526c4 (.trap 0xffffffff4526c4)

ErrCode = 00000002

eax=85c5d4d8 ebx=00000000 ecx=8cb5bcc0 edx=8cb5bcc0 esi=85c5d420 edi=ed9c7048

eip=820d0c1f esp=452738 ebp=45274c iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na pe nc

cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010206


820d0c1f 890a mov dword ptr [edx],ecx ds:0023:8cb5bcc0=????????

Resetting default scope

LAST_CONTROL_TRANSFER: from 820d0c1f to 82077d24


4526c4 820d0c1f badb0d00 8cb5bcc0 87952ed0 nt!KiTrap0E+0x2ac

45274c 8205f486 00000002 85c5d420 ed9c7048 nt!KiUnwaitThread+0x19

452770 8205f52a ed9c7048 ed9c7008 00000000 nt!KiInsertQueueApc+0x2a0

452790 8205742b ed9c7048 00000000 00000000 nt!KeInsertQueueApc+0x4b

4527c8 8f989cd0 e79e1e88 e79e1f70 00000000 nt!IopfCompleteRequest+0x438

4527e0 8a869ce7 00000007 00000000 00000007 tdx!TdxMessageTlRequestComplete+0x94

452804 8a869d33 e79e1f70 e79e1e88 00000000 tcpip!UdpEndSendMessages+0xfa

45281c 8a560c7f e79e1e88 00000001 00000000 tcpip!UdpSendMessagesDatagramsComplete+0x22




8f989cd0 6804010000 push 104h


SYMBOL_NAME: tdx!TdxMessageTlRequestComplete+94



IMAGE_NAME: tdx.sys


FAILURE_BUCKET_ID: 0xA_tdx!TdxMessageTlRequestComplete+94

BUCKET_ID: 0xA_tdx!TdxMessageTlRequestComplete+94

Followup: MachineOwner

It looks like a bunch of hieroglyphic mumbo jumbo. However, if you look closely you can gain some further insight into the possible problem or cause of it. The PROCESS_NAME is System suggesting a system process. The MODULE_NAME is tdx.


The tdx was clickable for me which executes the command:

kd> lmvm tdx

as a kd command. The ‘lm’ in “lmvm” is Loaded Module. The ‘v’ is Verbose. The ‘m’ is a pattern match. From the debugger chm manual it states it as:

m Pattern

Specifies a pattern that the module name must match. Pattern can contain a variety of wildcard characters and specifiers. For more information about the syntax of this information, see String Wildcard Syntax.

You can find a lot of information from the chm manual when you download the windbg from Microsoft. It will located here:

C:Program FilesDebugging Tools for Windows (x86)debugger.chm

The output from the above command is:

0: kd> lmvm tdx

start end module name

8f97f000 8f995000 tdx (pdb symbols) c:Program FilesDebugging Tools for Windows (x86)symtdx.pdbCFB0726BF9864FDDA4B793D5E641E5531tdx.pdb

Loaded symbol image file: tdx.sys

Mapped memory image file: c:Program FilesDebugging Tools for Windows (x86)symtdx.sys479190EE16000tdx.sys

Image path: SystemRootsystem32DRIVERStdx.sys

Image name: tdx.sys

Timestamp: Fri Jan 18 21:55:58 2008 (479190EE)

CheckSum: 0001391F

ImageSize: 00016000

File version: 6.0.6001.18000

Product version: 6.0.6001.18000

File flags: 0 (Mask 3F)

File OS: 40004 NT Win32

File type: 3.6 Driver

File date: 00000000.00000000

Translations: 0409.04b0

CompanyName: Microsoft Corporation

ProductName: Microsoft® Windows® Operating System

InternalName: tdx.sys

OriginalFilename: tdx.sys

ProductVersion: 6.0.6001.18000

FileVersion: 6.0.6001.18000 (longhorn_rtm.0801181840)

FileDescription: TDI Translation Driver

LegalCopyright: © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

So we glean some more insight. Who makes the module and the possible cause of the problem.

I look at the STACK_TEXT and there are references to tcpip and NETIO which seems to allude to a network problem. So I googled others with a BSOD and tdx.sys problem and there is a hotfix for this problem. However, a BIG word of caution please do not download the hotfix if this particular problem does not apply to you. Microsoft suggests to use the Microsoft Update procedures which will include all hotfixes.

To obtain the link to the hotfix for the network problem Google “Hotfix 934611 microsoft”.

I did not download this hotfix but rather opted to updated my service pack. Currently, Vista is at Service Pack 2. I only had Service Pack 1. So I’ll see if this fixes the problem.

To check what Service Pack you have installed and what bit version (32bit or 64bit) go to:

“Start/Computer”. Rightclick “Computer” and then click “Properties”. You’ll see the Service Pack information under the heading “Windows Edition”. Under the heading “System” (around midway through the page) you’ll see “System type:” which will display whether you have 32bit or 64bit versions installed.

To obtain the Service Pack 2 for Vista Google “sp2 Vista Microsoft”.


Source by Victor Kimura

4 Major Questions to Ask While Interviewing a Magento Developer


The key to success of your online store lies on how efficiently you can build it. User-friendliness, functionality, SEO-friendliness and a number of other factors are responsible for the success of your online website. Thus, choosing the eCommerce platform is a crucial phase of development. Magento is the most powerful platform and recommended choice of developers for eCommerce development. However, things certainly become more productive when you choose the right Magento developer for your eCommerce website as well.

Skill set and knowledge of a developer greatly affect the efficiency of a website and thus, while interviewing a developer it becomes crucial to check his credibility rightly. Keeping this in mind, here are some of the important questions to know before hiring a developer.

Question 1: Is your company experienced in Magento eCommerce development?

One of the major questions to ask a developer is whether he has a fair experience to work with Magento development projects or not. Magento is typically a complex software which, certainly requires relevant experience to make sure that the project doesn’t get stuck in the middle while addressing the technical challenges. Keep in mind, that the developer has sound experience to work with different types of projects and stay ready to face various technical challenges.

Question 2: Is your work process focussed on quality?

Quality is something of greatest importance while building a Magento online store. Thus, while choosing the right developer for your web development project, it is ideal to keep a note of the QA methods adopted by him to test the process of quality management. Furthermore, you can look for the certifications and accreditation achieved by the developer to know about his level of credibility.

Question 3: How effective is your mode of communication?

Effective communication is a major requisite to carry a smooth relation between the development team and stakeholders. Thus, make sure that they have an effective communication mechanism to connect with their clients. Starting from the first project meeting to its delivery, constant communication with the project managers, development team and account managers is necessary.

Question 4: Do you offer post-development support?

Post-development support is important to deal with the bugs and issues before the eCommerce site goes live. While considering complexities of this platform, it makes the right sense to have extensive support for your post development needs such that you do not need to suffer from and functionality or technical issue in the future course.

Developing an eCommerce store powered by Magento is certainly a daunting task as this platform requires deep technical expertise. Thus, even for making minor changes and enhancements, the skill set of a developer is necessary.


Source by Rob Stephen

Steps to Resolve the Dell Error Code 0141


The 0141 error is a Dell error which is shown when there are problems with the hard drive of your system. The typical message shown for this error is “2000-0141” and displays some sort of issues with the hard drive of your PC. Many people report seeing this error even though the hard drive is not affected, and in order to fix it, you need to be able to use the following tutorial to remedy any of the issues inside it…

What Causes The Dell 0141 Error?

* Corrupt registry settings

* Infections from viruses

* Damaged hard drive settings on your Dell PC

How Do You Fix The Dell 0141 Error?

Step1 – You should first run the “Dell Self Test” facility to scan through your PC and tell you about any problems that might be inside it. This is a piece of software provided by Dell and is used to help you get to the bottom of any issues or problems that often cause your computer to show errors. You can use this facility from the “Dell Resource CD” that came with your Dell computer. Performing this test will show you what’s wrong with your system and will then give you the direct method to fix the issues

Step 2 – You should then run a “virus scan” to remove any possible infections that are inside your system. Viruses are like small applications which latch onto your computer and hardware and cause a lot of problems to your PC. To fix this, you need to use a reliable antivirus program to scan through your system and remove any of the viruses that might be on your system and causing havoc.

Step 3 – After performing those 2 steps, you should then perform a registry scan to help fix your computer’s registry. The registry is a central database which stores all sorts of settings and information for your system. Unfortunately, the registry is also one of the main causes of problems for your PC, and is what causes many PCs to run with errors. Fortunately, you can fix this and make your PC run much faster by using a ‘registry cleaner’ to fix any of the problems that are inside this part of Windows. This is highly recommended to fix the 0141 error.


Source by Greg Kahn

How To Fix OpenAL32 DLL Errors On Your PC


OpenAL32.dll is a file used by the “Open Audio Library” – an audio driver developed by Creative Technologies to help your computer play back music & audio in crystal clear quality. Although OpenAL32.dll is a very important file, used by numerous leading games, it’s continually causing a large number of problems & errors for a number of computers around the World. If you want to fix this problem, you should look to fix the various errors which are causing the OpenAL32.dll error to show on your computer – which can be done by following the steps outlined in this tutorial.

OpenAL32.dll errors normally occur when you either use a certain piece of software or play a particular game on your PC. The errors will be shown in this format:

  • The procedure entry point alcIsExtensionPresent could not be located in the dynamic link libaray OpenAL32.dll
  • “openal32.dll Not Found”
  • “This application failed to start because openal32.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem.”
  • “Cannot find openal32.dll”

If you want to resolve the errors you’re seeing, there are a few ways to do it. The first step is to correct any problems that your Windows computer may have with the pieces of software & games which could be causing a problem. After that, it’s recommended you fix any potential problems that Windows has inside, allowing your PC to run much smoother and more reliably.

Fortunately for us, Creative Technologies have released an “OpenAL Repair Tool” which will basically fix all the openAL files your computer has. This tool is basically like an automated repair program that will fix the problems causing your computer’s errors, and will should fix any potential problems that your PC has with the openal32.dll file. You should use that program (which can be downloaded from the Creative Website) to first fix any issues on Windows, as well as then reinstalling any programs / games which are causing an error.

On top of that, it’s also recommended you use a “registry cleaner” program to clean out any possible errors inside the ‘registry’ of your PC. This is a central database which stores the information and settings that Windows requires to run, and is responsible for storing such information as your desktop wallpaper all the way through to your most recent emails. If you are having problems with DLL files on your system, it’s recommended you fix the errors that could be inside the registry by using a ‘registry cleaner’ tool to fix them for good. This will clean out any problems your system has and allow your computer to run much smoother as a result.


Source by James Henry Johnson

Steps to Fix Osetup DLL Errors – Repair This Error to Run Microsoft Office Again


Osetup.dll is a “Dynamic Link Library” (dll) file used by the Microsoft Office suite of applications. This file is generally used to control the various components & plugins that Office requires to run and is used every time you use an Office application on your PC. Unfortunately, this file is also a big cause of errors for your system, as it’s continually being damaged & corrupted. To ensure this is not a problem for your PC, you should use the tutorial on this page to repair it.

The errors that Osetup.dll normally shows are as follows:

  • “This application failed to start because osetup.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem.”
  • “Cannot find [PATH] osetup.dll.”
  • X:outlookr.WWOsetup.DLL digital signature does not validate or is not present.”

The first step to curing this error is to manually start the installation of Office you might have been trying to do. If Office was “auto running” from the CD, then the chances are that your PC has been unable to read the various files that the CD has. This is a big problem, and is often the cause of the OSetup.dll error. To fix this, you should click onto the CD of your PC and then locate “Setup.exe”. This will load the setup & the files it needs.

If this doesn’t solve the problem, you should then look to copy the setup files to your hard drive, and then run the installation from your hard drive. You can do this by clicking on the onto the CD and then copying all the files it has inside. You should then browse to a hard drive and paste the files onto it, allowing your computer to read the files it needs to complete the installation in one central location.

After this, clean out the registry with a “registry cleaner”. This is highly recommended as the ‘registry’ of your computer is where Windows stores the files & settings that your computer & programs need to run. The registry is a large database which plays a vital role in the installation & operation of your computer. However, because this database is continually being used so much by Windows, your PC is constantly getting confused and saving many parts of it in the wrong way. To ensure this is not a problem, you should use a registry cleaner program to scan through this database and fix the various errors that are inside, allowing your PC to read the files it needs and run (much) smoother as a result.


Source by Katie Martins

How to Fix XP Error Code 45 – A Trick to Repair XP Error Code 45 in Seconds


Windows XP error code 45 is an error which often appears randomly on the typical Windows XP system. It’s caused by a problem with the drivers & hardware of your PC being unable to run coherently with your computer’s setup, making it essential that you’re able to repair any problem which may be causing error code 45 to show.

Error code 45 will typically show in this format:

  • Currently, this hardware device is not connected to the computer. (Code 45)

The error basically means that the hardware your PC requires to use (such as a webcam, graphics tablet or projector) is no longer attached to the system. This issue can be caused by two problems – the first being that the hardware is not actually attached to your PC any more, and the second being that Windows doesn’t recognize the hardware being present on your system. If the latter is true, then it’s essential you’re able to fix the problems on your system which are preventing Windows from being able to access the various pieces of hardware which it requires. Here’s how…

The first step to repairing this error is to first ensure the hardware of your system is actually connected to your PC. It can often be the case that the various pieces of hardware will either have a damaged power supply / cable, which causes them to flicker between being on and off. You need to make sure your hardware is actually connected, as if it is not, then your PC will just show error 45 as it cannot process it.

The second step to fix this problem is to look at what drivers & settings your system has to control the hardware on the system. Each piece of hardware on your PC is controlled by a series of “drivers” and other software tools which are designed to help Windows communicate with the various hardware components of your system. As you may imagine, many of these software “bridges” often become damaged, corrupted or unreadable – leading Windows to be unable to read the hardware components it requires. If you want to make the 45 error disappear, then it’s essential that you’re able to repair any damaged drivers, and fix the problems that are inside your PC.

One of the best ways to repair the 45 error code is to use a registry cleaner program. These are software tools which basically scan through a part of your PC called the “registry”, and fix any of the damaged or corrupted settings which are often accumulated inside. The registry is a database which stores all the settings that Windows requires to run, and is a very important part of your system. If you are having problems with your system, the registry is actually one of the most likely causes – which means that by fixing the damaged settings inside it, you should allow your system to run much smoother and reliably.


Source by James Henry Johnson

What Drives Information Technology


Information technology generally refers to all forms of technology used in the creation, storage, exchange and utilization of data, conversation and all multi-media forms of communication. With computer technology constantly changing and improving, businesses are being driven with the need for the right system that is based on the requirements and goals of their enterprise. They are considered business allies in an information-based economy.

What drives information technology is competition within the business environment and the progression of computer technology that it is a part of. The systems of technology involve varied shapes of many state of the art devices that help in the transmission of information to managers translating such information to their decisions in the organization’s operations.

There are many forms of information technology like computers, sensors, robots and decision support systems. The newest one being used in the market today are handhelds to help managers and subordinates to support their daily operations in the office. Due to the emergence of varied accounting system technology, Electronic Data Process Auditing now also known as Information Technology Auditing was launched to also cater to the need for technology control and as a response to utilize computers’ capacity for attestation services.

Information technology has revolutionized business operations. In shaping the structure and functions of work organizations, plants, and office, modern information technology is considered one of prime movers among many industries. When one talks about technology, it brings up a whole exciting world of computers and the Internet. It also prompts terms like server, intranet, security, firewall and network. Other terms in its jargon are Ethernet, VoIP and more.

Information technology has not always alluded to computers, but referred to the oldest information processor, which is the brain. Technology is perhaps man’s scientific attempt to imitate the brain’s efficiency in functions of communication and information storage. Thus it is essentially the communication, storage and processing of information that would suit the purposes of users.

Through the use of high technology in the form of state of the art computers and software systems, communication is well managed. Some companies refer to its Information Technology Department as MIS or Management Information Services. Large companies have bigger requirements for the Information technology departments with bigger responsibilities in information storage, information protection, information processing, information transmission, and even information retrieval. IT contributes to the success of these businesses as it works along side its human resources in accomplishing the organization’s tasks while reducing costs and opening new possibilities that have never been tried before by the company.

When the best of both science and technology is combined, what results is as powerful as today’s advancements in technology. So powerful it is that it is not only a part of man’s life — it dominates it. It makes him realize every second of his existence


Source by James J Bellavia

How to Fix Runtime Error 91 in a Safe and Easy Way – A Newbie Can Do It


Runtime Error 91 is one of the most common errors that one can encounter while operating a system. It usually has the message – “Object variable or with block variable not set”.

Some of the reasons that lead to Runtime error 91 are missing DLL, corrupt file, faulty installation, registry errors and bugs. The runtime error 91 can also be caused if some new software programs are being installed before another program has been completely uninstalled. This brings in registry errors and also slows down the system. Apart from these, the runtime error 91 can also be caused by an attack of Malware or Trojan.

Error 91 is usually not seen when the software is installed, but it appears when one tries to use the installed software. The error 91 normally occurs when a link of the software that is being downloaded is interrupted or missing.

Though you may come across message like Runtime Error 91 – “Object variable or with block variable not set”, you can fix the problem following certain easy steps.

Once you encounter error 91, the first thing you should have to do is to change “DCOMCnfg.exe” settings in the computer. The “DCOMCnfg.exe” system control the various file permissions on the computer and also help to load different programs. First of all, reload the DCOMCnfg.exe and then set the permissions in it to allow access for “Everyone”.

You should also visit the site of software developer and then download the patch. You will be guided through instructions of the developer’s site for proper installation and running the patch.

However, the steps above could promise that you can 100% fix runtime error 91. If you are still in trouble with error 91 after completing the above steps, it could be noted that corruption in the registry may be the reason.

The registry is the base of the computer where all vital information and settings are stored. It is also a center that helps the computer to remember all its important details. Any wrong operating on system registry will lead to terrible computer crash. The error in the registry is the major cause of showing of the message runtime error 91. Therefore, it is better that the registry is cleaned up for removing error 91. A manual registry repair is not that easy and so it is good to have a reliable and professional registry repair software installed. The registry repair software will do the task very effectively and also in less time, and will not cause any trouble as you may do by yourself.


Source by Ruimin Huang

Adobe Photoshop CS3 Removal – How to Uninstall Photoshop CS3


Do you encounter problem when uninstalling Photoshop CS3? Do you want to uninstall the program and download a new one? No problem. This article is just right for you to remove Photoshop CS3 completely from your computer.

First of all you can try windows add/remove program to uninstall Photoshop CS3 as following:

Windows 7 and Windows Vista users: Click Uninstall a Program.

Windows XP users: Click Add or Remove Programs.

If you fail to uninstall Photoshop CS3, you may ask why you can’t remove Adobe Photoshop successfully. Common problems are as following:

1. You do not close all the components of the program

2. The program has been corrupted.

3. The program is infected by a virus

After reviewing those causes, I think you may have a little idea about how to uninstall Photoshop CS3. If you have no problem with running the program now, you can take my uninstall tips here.

1. Run your antivirus program which has an updated signature database. This step is to make sure your Photoshop CS3 is free of virus. If it is infected by virus, you can remove the program with your antivirus program. Of course, it may not clear up all components of Photoshop CS3. So go forward to the next tip.

2. You should equip your computer with a third part uninstall tool. A third party uninstall tool can remove corrupted program, while a corrupted program will not appear on the list of windows add/remove program. Moreover, an advantage of a third party program over windows add/remove program or a built-in installer is that it can remove registry entries completely and no component will remain on your computer.

Perfect Uninstall Tool is highly recommended to uninstall Photoshop CS3. Free download Perfect Uninstall Tool now and it will take care of all uninstall task for you. You computer will not have any corrupted file that can not be removed from now on.


Source by Jessica Teddy Jones

The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics


The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics

Like in our real lives, we must have rules to follow with regards to the use of computers. There is a set of rules known as the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics. Like the Ten Commandments in the Holy Bible, many of these are common sense approaches. Some keep you out of trouble, while others keep you private. No matter how you look at it, they are good to follow.

Computer ethics is based upon the premise of intellectual property; what you create with your mind is yours and yours alone, and no one else has the right to use it without your permission. The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics were created in 1992 by the Computer Ethics Institute. The commandments were introduced in the paper “In Pursuit of a ‘Ten Commandments’ for Computer Ethics” by Ramon C. Barquin as a means to create a set of standards to guide and instruct people in the ethical use of computers. Many security organizations such as CISSP use these commandments as a foundation to guide them in the use of computer security guidelines. Whether you are a computer professional, or just a casual user, it is just a good idea to follow these commandments:

1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.

(In other words, do not use a computer in ways that may harm someone else).

2. Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work.

(Do not use computer technology to cause interference in other users’ work).

3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files.

(Do not spy on another person’s computer data).

4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.

(Do not use computer technology to steal information).

5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.

(Do not contribute to the spread of misinformation using computer technology).

6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. (Refrain from copying software or buying pirated copies).

7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.

(Do not use someone else’s computer resources unless authorized to do so).

8. Thou shalt not appropriate other peoples intellectual output.

(It is wrong to claim ownership on a work which is the output of someone’s else’s intellect).

9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.

(Before developing a software, think about the social impact it can have).

10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

(Be respectful and courteous with the others when using a computer or technology).

The Commandments are short and to the point. They by no means cover every possible situation which could arise from the use or misuse of a computer. They are guidelines. Violating some of them might be a violation of law in some countries, while in others, no laws exist. Take for instance Commandment number five. Bearing false witness can mean the spread of misinformation. Is that necessarily a violation of law? It can be considering the circumstances or situation. Consider Commandment number six. Software offered on a “trial” basis usually will have features locked that would become available for use once the software is paid for. It would be illegal to modify the code so that one can use those features without paying for them. On the other hand, what if someone downloads the program with the features already unlocked? Did they steal the software even though it was offered as a free download from a third-party site? That would depend on whether or not the person downloading knew it was a pirated copy.

As you can see, these Commandments can become a bit tricky depending on the circumstances. But as a general rule, practicing common sense while using a computer will usually keep you out of trouble.


Source by Terry L Fenwick